### User’s Guide

Publisher: | Stata Press |

Copyright: | 2023 |

ISBN-13: | 978-1-59718-403-8 |

Pages: | 397 |

##### Suggested citation

StataCorp. 2023. *Stata 18 User’s Guide*. College Station, TX: Stata Press.

##### Supplemental materials

Data Analysis Using Stata, Third Edition

Ulrich Kohler and Frauke Kreuter

The Workflow of Data Analysis Using Stata

J. Scott Long

NetCourse^{®} 151: Introduction to Stata Programming

Using Stata effectively: Data management, analysis, and graphics fundamentals training course

##### Table of contents

Stata basics
1.1 Getting Started with Stata
1.2 The User’s Guide and the Reference manuals
1.2.1 PDF manuals
1.3 What’s new
1.2.1.1 Video example
1.2.2 Example datasets
1.2.2.1 Video example
1.2.3 Cross-referencing1.2.4 The index 1.2.5 The subject table of contents 1.2.6 Typography 1.2.7 Vignette 1.4 References
3.1 Overview
3.2 Stata on the Internet (www.stata.com and other resources)
3.2.1 The Stata website (www.stata.com)
3.3 Stata Press3.2.2 The Stata YouTube Channel 3.2.3 The Stata Blog: Not Elsewhere Classified 3.2.4 The Stata Forum 3.2.5 Stata on social media 3.2.6 Other Internet resources on Stata 3.4 The Stata Journal 3.5 Updating and adding features from the web
3.5.1 Official updates
3.6 Conferences and training3.5.2 Unofficial updates
3.6.1 Conferences and users group meetings
3.7 Books and other support materials3.6.2 NetCourses 3.6.3 Classroom training courses 3.6.4 Web-based training courses 3.6.5 On-site training courses 3.6.6 Webinars
3.7.1 For readers
3.8 Technical support3.7.2 For authors 3.7.3 For editors 3.7.4 For instructors
3.8.1 Register your software
3.9 References
3.8.2 Before contacting technical support 3.8.3 Technical support by email 3.8.4 Technical support by phone 3.8.5 Comments and suggestions for our technical staff
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Getting started 4.3 help: Stata’s help system 4.4 Accessing PDF manuals from help entries 4.5 Searching 4.6 More on search 4.7 More on help 4.8 search: All the details
4.8.1 How search works
4.9 net search: Searching net resources4.8.2 Author searches 4.8.3 Entry ID searches 4.8.4 FAQ searches 4.8.5 Return codes
5.1 StataNow
5.2 Platforms 5.3 Stata/MP, Stata/SE, or Stata/BE
5.3.1 Determining which version you own
5.4 Size limits of Stata/MP, SE, and BE5.3.2 Determining which version is installed 5.5 Speed comparison of Stata/MP, SE, and BE 5.6 Feature comparison of Stata/MP, SE, and BE
6.1 Memory-size considerations
6.2 Compressing data 6.3 Setting maxvar 6.4 The memory command 6.5 Setting aside memory for temporary storage of preserved datasets
7.1 Description
7.2 set more 7.3 The more programming command
8.1 Making mistakes
8.1.1 Mistakes are forgiven
8.2 The return message for obtaining command timings8.1.2 Mistakes stop user-written programs and do-files 8.1.3 Advanced programming to tolerate errors
9.1 Making Stata stop what it is doing
9.2 Side effects of clicking on Break 9.3 Programming considerations
10.1 Description
10.2 F-keys 10.3 Editing keys in Stata 10.4 Editing keys in Stata for Unix(console) 10.5 Editing previous lines in Stata 10.6 Tab expansion of variable names Elements of Stata
11.1 Overview
11.1.1 varlist
11.2 Abbreviation rules11.1.2 by varlist: 11.1.3 if exp 11.1.4 in range 11.1.5 =exp 11.1.6 weight 11.1.7 options 11.1.8 numlist 11.1.9 datelist 11.1.10 Prefix commands
11.2.1 Command abbreviation
11.3 Naming conventions11.2.2 Option abbreviation 11.2.3 Variable-name abbreviation 11.2.4 Abbreviations for programmers 11.4 varname and varlists
11.4.1 Lists of existing variables
11.5 by varlist: construct11.4.2 Lists of new variables 11.4.3 Factor variables
11.4.3.1 Factor-variable operators
11.4.4 Time-series varlists11.4.3.2 Base levels 11.4.3.3 Setting base levels permanently 11.4.3.4 Selecting levels 11.4.3.5 Applying operators to a group of variables 11.4.3.6 Using factor variables with time-series operators 11.4.3.7 Video examples
11.4.4.1 Video example
11.6 Filenaming conventions
11.6.1 A special note for Mac users
11.7 References11.6.2 A shortcut to your home directory
12.1 Data and datasets
12.2 Numbers
12.2.1 Missing values
12.3 Dates and times12.2.2 Numeric storage types 12.4 Strings
12.4.1 Overview
12.5 Formats: Controlling how data are displayed12.4.2 Handling Unicode strings
12.4.2.1 Unicode string functions
12.4.3 Strings containing identifying data12.4.2.2 Displaying Unicode characters 12.4.2.3 Encodings 12.4.2.4 Locales in Unicode 12.4.2.5 Sorting strings containing Unicode characters 12.4.2.6 Advice for users of Stata 13 and earlier 12.4.4 Strings containing categorical data 12.4.5 Strings containing numeric data 12.4.6 String literals 12.4.7 str1–str2045 and str 12.4.8 strL 12.4.9 strL variables and duplicated values 12.4.10 strL variables and binary strings 12.4.11 strL variables and files 12.4.12 String display formats 12.4.13 How to see the full contents of a strL or a str# variable 12.4.14 Notes for programmers
12.5.1 Numeric formats
12.6 Dataset, variable, and value labels12.5.2 European numeric formats 12.5.3 Date and time formats 12.5.4 String formats
12.6.1 Dataset labels
12.7 Notes attached to data12.6.2 Variable labels 12.6.3 Value labels 12.6.4 Labels in other languages 12.8 Characteristics 12.9 Data Editor and Variables Manager 12.10 Data frames 12.11 References
13.1 Overview
13.2 Operators
13.2.1 Arithmetic operators
13.3 Functions13.2.2 String operators 13.2.3 Relational operators 13.2.4 Logical operators 13.2.5 Order of evaluation, all operators 13.4 System variables (_variables) 13.5 Accessing coefficients and standard errors
13.5.1 Single-equation models
13.6 Accessing results from Stata commands13.5.2 Multiple-equation models 13.5.3 Factor variables and time-series operators 13.7 Explicit subscripting
13.7.1 Generating lags and leads
13.8 Using the Expression Builder13.7.2 Subscripting within groups 13.9 Indicator values for levels of factor variables 13.10 Time-series operators
13.10.1 Generating lags, leads, and differences
13.11 Label values13.10.2 Time-series operators and factor variables 13.10.3 Operators within groups 13.10.4 Video example 13.12 Precision and problems therein 13.13 References
14.1 Overview
14.1.1 Definition of a matrix
14.2 Row and column names
14.2.1 The purpose of row and column names
14.3 Vectors and scalars14.2.2 Two-part names 14.2.3 Setting row and column names 14.2.4 Obtaining row and column names 14.4 Inputting matrices by hand 14.5 Accessing matrices created by Stata commands 14.6 Creating matrices by accumulating data 14.7 Matrix operators 14.8 Matrix functions 14.9 Subscripting 14.10 Using matrices in scalar expressions 14.11 Reference
15.1 Overview
15.1.1 Starting and closing logs
15.2 Placing comments in logs15.1.2 Appending to an existing log 15.1.3 Suspending and resuming logging 15.3 Logging only what you type 15.4 The log-button alternative 15.5 Printing logs 15.6 Creating multiple log files for simultaneous use
16.1 Description
16.1.1 Version
16.2 Calling other do-files16.1.2 Comments and blank lines in do-files 16.1.3 Long lines in do-files 16.1.4 Error handling in do-files 16.1.5 Logging the output of do-files 16.1.6 Preventing —more— conditions 16.3 Creating and running do-files
16.3.1 Creating and running do-files for Windows
16.4 Programming with do-files16.3.2 Creating and running do-files for Mac 16.3.3 Creating and running do-files for Unix
16.4.1 Argument passing
16.5 References16.4.2 Suppressing output
17.1 Description
17.2 What is an ado-file? 17.3 How can I tell if a command is built in or an ado-file? 17.4 How can I look at an ado-file? 17.5 Where does Stata look for ado-files?
17.5.1 Where are the official ado-directory?
17.6 How do I install an addition?17.5.2 Where is my personal ado-directory? 17.7 How do I add my own ado-files? 17.8 How do I install official updates? 17.9 How do I install updates to community-contributed additions? 17.10 Reference
18.1 Description
18.2 Relationship between a program and a do-file 18.3 Macros
18.3.1 Local macros
18.4 Program arguments18.3.2 Global macros 18.3.3 The difference between local and global macros 18.3.4 Macros and expressions 18.3.5 Double quotes 18.3.6 Macro functions 18.3.7 Macro increment and decrement functions 18.3.8 Macro expressions 18.3.9 Advanced local macro manipulation 18.3.10 Advanced global macro manipultation 18.3.11 Constructing Windows filenames by using macros 18.3.12 Accessing system values 18.3.13 Referring to characteristics
18.4.1 Named positional arguments
18.5 Scalars and matrices18.4.2 Incrementing through positional arguments 18.4.3 Using macro shift 18.4.4 Parsing standard Stata syntax 18.4.5 Parsing immediate commands 18.4.6 Parsing nonstandard syntax 18.6 Temporarily destroying the data in memory 18.7 Temporary objects
18.7.1 Temporary variables
18.8 Accessing results calculated by other programs18.7.2 Temporary scalars and matrices 18.7.3 Temporary files 18.7.4 Temporary frames 18.9 Accessing results calculated by estimation commands 18.10 Storing results
18.10.1 Storing results in r()
18.11 Ado-files18.10.2 Storing results in e() 18.10.3 Storing results in s()
18.11.1 Version
18.12 Tools for interacting with programs outside Stata and with other languages18.11.2 Comments and long lines in ado-files 18.11.3 Debugging ado-files 18.11.4 Local subroutines 18.11.5 Development of a sample ado-command 18.11.6 Writing help files 18.11.7 Programming dialog boxes 18.13 A compendium of useful commands for programmers 18.14 References
19.1 Overview
19.1.1 Examples
19.2 The display command 19.1.2 A list of the immediate commands 19.3 The power command
20.1 All estimation commands work the same way
20.2 Standard syntax 20.3 Replaying prior results 20.4 Cataloging estimation results 20.5 Saving estimation results 20.6 Specification search tools 20.7 Specifying the estimation subsample 20.8 Specifying the width of confidence intervals 20.9 Formatting the coefficient table 20.10 Obtaining the variance–covariance matrix 20.11 Obtaining predicted values
20.11.1 Using predict
20.12 Accessing estimated coefficients20.11.2 Making in-sample predictions 20.11.3 Making out-of-sample predictions 20.11.4 Obtaining standard errors, tests, and confidence intervals for predictions 20.13 Performing hypothesis tests on the coefficients
20.13.1 Linear tests
20.14 Obtaining linear combinations of coefficients20.13.2 Using test 20.13.3 Likelihood-ratio tests 20.13.4 Nonlinear Wald tests 20.15 Obtaining nonlinear combinations of coefficients 20.16 Obtaining marginal means, adjusted predictions, and predictive margins
20.16.1 Obtaining estimated marginal means
20.17 Obtaining conditional and average marginal effects20.16.2 Obtaining adjusted predictions 20.16.3 Obtaining predictive margins
20.17.1 Obtaining conditional marginal effects
20.18 Obtaining pairwise comparisons20.17.2 Obtaining average marginal effects 20.19 Obtaining contrasts, tests of interactions, and main effects 20.20 Graphing margins, marginal effects, and contrasts 20.21 Dynamic forecasts and simulations 20.22 Obtaining robust variance estimates
20.22.1 Interpreting standard errors
20.23 Obtaining scores20.22.2 Correlated errors: Cluster–robust standard errors 20.24 Weighted estimation
20.24.1 Frequency weights
20.25 A list of postestimation commands20.24.2 Analytic weights 20.24.3 Sampling weights 20.24.4 Importance weights 20.26 References
21.1 Overview
21.2 The dynamic document commands 21.3 The putdocx, putpdf, and putexcel commands Advice
22.1 Overview
22.2 Determining which method to use
22.2.1 Entering data interactively
22.3 If you run out of memory22.2.2 Copying and pasting data
22.2.2.1 Video example
22.2.3 If the dataset is in binary format22.2.4 If the data are simple 22.2.5 If the dataset is formatted and the formatting is significant 22.2.6 If there are no string variables 22.2.7 If all the string variables are enclosed in quotes 22.2.8 If the undelimited strings have no blanks 22.2.9 If you have EBCDIC data 22.2.10 If you make it to here 22.4 ODBC sources 22.5 JDBC sources
23.1 References
24.1 Description
24.2 Categorical string variables 24.3 Mistaken string variables 24.4 Complex strings 24.5 Reference
25.1 Overview
25.2 Inputting dates and times 25.3 Displaying dates and times 25.4 Typing dates and times (datetime literals) 25.5 Extracting components of dates and times 25.6 Converting between date and time values 25.7 Business dates and calendars 25.8 References
26.1 Continuous, categorical, and indicator variables
26.1.1 Converting continuous variables to indicator variables
26.2 Estimation with factor variables 26.1.2 Converting continuous variables to categorical variables
26.2.1 Including factor variables
26.3 References 26.2.2 Specifying base levels 26.2.3 Setting base levels permanently 26.2.4 Testing significance of a main effect 26.2.5 Specifying indicator (dummy) variables as factor variables 26.2.6 Including interactions 26.2.7 Testing significance of interactions 26.2.8 Including factorial specifications 26.2.9 Including squared terms and polynomials 26.2.10 Including interactions with continuous variables 26.2.11 Parentheses binding 26.2.12 Including indicators for single levels 26.2.13 Including subgroups of levels 26.2.14 Combining factor variables and time-series operators 26.2.15 Treatment of empty cells
27.1 Introduction
27.2 Means, proportions, and related statistics 27.3 Continuous outcomes
27.3.1 ANOVA and ANCOVA
27.4 Binary outcomes27.3.2 Linear regression 27.3.3 Regression with heteroskedastic errors 27.3.4 Estimation with correlated errors 27.3.5 Regression with censored and truncated outcomes 27.3.6 Multiple-equation models 27.3.7 Stochastic frontier models 27.3.8 Nonlinear regression 27.3.9 Nonparametric regression
27.4.1 Logistic, probit, and complementary log–log regression
27.5 Fractional outcomes27.4.2 Conditional logistic regression 27.4.3 ROC analysis 27.6 Ordinal outcomes 27.7 Categorical outcomes 27.8 Count outcomes 27.9 Generalized linear models 27.10 Choice models
27.10.1 Models for discrete choices
27.11 Exact estimators27.10.2 Models for rank-ordered alternatives 27.12 Models with endogenous covariates 27.13 Models with endogenous sample selection 27.14 Time-series models 27.15 Panel-data models
27.15.1 Continuous outcomes with panel data
27.16 Multilevel mixed-effects models27.15.2 Censored outcomes with panel data 27.15.3 Discrete outcomes with panel data 27.15.4 Generalized linear models with panel data 27.15.5 Survival models with panel data 27.15.6 Dynamic and autoregressive panel-data models 27.15.7 Bayesian estimation 27.17 Survival analysis models 27.18 Meta-analysis 27.19 Spatial autoregressive models 27.20 Causal inference 27.21 Pharmacokinetic data 27.22 Multivariate analysis 27.23 Maximum likelihood estimation 27.24 Generalized method of moments (GMM) 27.25 Structural equation modeling (SEM) 27.26 Latent class models 27.27 Finite mixture models(FMMs) 27.28 Item response theory (IRT) 27.29 Dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) models 27.30 Lasso 27.31 Survey data 27.32 Multiple imputation 27.33 Power, precision, and sample-size analysis
27.33.1 Power and sample-size analysis
27.34 Bayesian analysis27.33.2 Precision and sample-size analysis 27.33.3 Group sequential designs 27.35 Bayesian model averaging 27.36 References
29.1 Overview
29.2 Sharing datasets (and other files) 29.3 Official updates
29.3.1 Frequently asked questions about updating
29.4 Downloading and managing additions by users
29.4.1 Downloading files
29.5 Making your own download site 29.4.2 Managing files 29.4.3 Finding files to download 29.4.4 Updating additions by users 29.4.5 Video example |