### User's Guide

Publisher: | Stata Press |

Copyright: | 2017 |

ISBN-13: | 978-1-59718-255-3 |

Pages: | 416 |

##### Supplemental materials

Data Analysis Using Stata, Third Edition

Ulrich Kohler and Frauke Kreuter

The Workflow of Data Analysis Using Stata

J. Scott Long

NetCourse^{®} 151: Introduction to Stata Programming

Using Stata Effectively: Data Management, Analysis, and Graphics Fundamentals training course

##### Table of contents

Stata basics
1.1 Getting Started with Stata
1.2 The User’s Guide and the Reference manuals
1.2.1 PDF manuals
1.3 What’s new
1.2.1.1 Video example
1.2.2 Example datasets
1.2.2.1 Video example
1.2.3 Cross-referencing1.2.4 The index 1.2.5 The subject table of contents 1.2.6 Typography 1.2.7 Vignette
1.3.1 What’s new (highlights)
1.4 References1.3.2 What’s new in statistics (general) 1.3.3 What’s new in statistics (multilevel) 1.3.4 What’s new in statistics (Bayesian) 1.3.5 What’s new in statistics (power and sample size) 1.3.6 What’s new in statistics (survival analysis) 1.3.7 What’s new in statistics (survey data) 1.3.8 What’s new in statistics (SEM) 1.3.9 What’s new in statistics (panel data) 1.3.10 What’s new in statistics (time series) 1.3.11 What’s new in statistics (multivariate) 1.3.12 What’s new in functions 1.3.13 What’s new in graphics 1.3.14 What’s new in data management 1.3.15 What’s new in programming 1.3.16 What’s new in Mata 1.3.17 What’s new in the interface 1.3.18 What’s more
2.1 Video example
3.1 Overview
3.2 Stata on the Internet (www.stata.com and other resources)
3.2.1 The Stata website (www.stata.com)
3.3 Stata Press3.2.2 The Stata YouTube Channel 3.2.3 The Stata Blog—Not Elsewhere Classified 3.2.4 The Stata Forum 3.2.5 Stata on social media 3.2.6 Other Internet resources on Stata 3.4 The Stata Journal 3.5 Updating and adding features from the web
3.6.1 Official updates
3.6 Conferences and training3.6.2 Unofficial updates
3.6.1 Conferences and users group meetings
3.7 Books and other support materials3.6.2 NetCourses 3.6.3 Classroom training courses 3.6.4 Web-based training courses 3.6.5 On-site training courses
3.7.1 For readers
3.8 Technical support3.7.2 For authors
3.8.1 Register your software
3.9 References
3.8.2 Before contacting technical support 3.8.3 Technical support by email 3.8.4 Technical support by phone 3.8.5 Comments and suggestions for our technical staff
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Getting started 4.3 help: Stata’s help system 4.4 Accessing PDF manuals from help entries 4.5 Searching 4.6 More on search 4.7 More on help 4.8 search: All the details
4.8.1 How search works
4.9 net search: Searching net resources4.8.2 Author searches 4.8.3 Entry ID searches 4.8.4 FAQ searches 4.8.5 Return codes
5.1 Platforms
5.2 Stata/MP, Stata/SE, or Stata/IC
5.2.1 Determining which version you own
5.3 Size limits of Stata/MP, SE, and IC5.2.2 Determining which version is installed 5.4 Speed comparison of Stata/MP, SE, and IC 5.5 Feature comparison of Stata/MP, SE, and IC
6.1 Memory-size considerations
6.2 Compressing data 6.3 Setting maxvar 6.4 Setting matsize 6.5 The memory command
7.1 Description
7.2 set more 7.3 The more programming command
8.1 Making mistakes
8.1.1 Mistakes are forgiven
8.2 The return message for obtaining command timings8.1.2 Mistakes stop community-contributed programs and do-files 8.1.3 Advanced programming to tolerate errors
9.1 Making Stata stop what it is doing
9.2 Side effects of clicking on Break 9.3 Programming considerations
10.1 Description
10.2 F-keys 10.3 Editing keys in Stata 10.4 Editing keys in Stata for Unix(console) 10.5 Editing previous lines in Stata 10.6 Tab expansion of variable names Elements of Stata
11.1 Overview
11.1.1 varlist
11.2 Abbreviation rules11.1.2 by varlist: 11.1.3 if exp 11.1.4 in range 11.1.5 =exp 11.1.6 weight 11.1.7 options 11.1.8 numlist 11.1.9 datelist 11.1.10 Prefix commands
11.2.1 Command abbreviation
11.3 Naming conventions11.2.2 Option abbreviation 11.2.3 Variable-name abbreviation 11.2.4 Abbreviations for programmers 11.4 varname and varlists
11.4.1 Lists of existing variables
11.5 by varlist: construct11.4.2 Lists of new variables 11.4.3 Factor variables
11.4.3.1 Factor-variable operators
11.4.4 Time-series varlists11.4.3.2 Base levels 11.4.3.3 Setting base levels permanently 11.4.3.4 Selecting levels 11.4.3.5 Applying operators to a group of variables 11.4.3.6 Using factor variables with time-series operators 11.4.3.7 Video examples
11.4.4.1 Video example
11.6 Filenaming conventions
11.6.1 A special note for Mac users
11.7 References11.6.2 A shortcut to your home directory
12.1 Data and datasets
12.2 Numbers
12.2.1 Missing values
12.3 Dates and times12.2.2 Numeric storage types 12.4 Strings
12.4.1 Overview
12.5 Formats: Controlling how data are displayed12.4.2 Handling Unicode strings
12.4.2.1 Unicode string functions
12.4.3 Strings containing identifying data12.4.2.2 Displaying Unicode characters 12.4.2.3 Encodings 12.4.2.4 Locales in Unicode 12.4.2.5 Sorting strings containing Unicode characters 12.4.2.6 Advice for users of Stata 13 and earlier 12.4.4 Strings containing categorical data 12.4.5 Strings containing numeric data 12.4.6 String literals 12.4.7 str1–str2045 and str 12.4.8 strL 12.4.9 strL variables and duplicated values 12.4.10 strL variables and binary strings 12.4.11 strL variables and files 12.4.12 String display formats 12.4.13 How to see the full contents of a strL or a str# variable 12.4.14 Notes for programmers
12.5.1 Numeric formats
12.6 Dataset, variable, and value labels12.5.2 European numeric formats 12.5.3 Date and time formats 12.5.4 String formats
12.6.1 Dataset labels
12.7 Notes attached to data12.6.2 Variable labels 12.6.3 Value labels 12.6.4 Labels in other languages 12.8 Characteristics 12.9 Data Editor and Variables Manager 12.10 References
13.1 Overview
13.2 Operators
13.2.1 Arithmetic operators
13.3 Functions13.2.2 String operators 13.2.3 Relational operators 13.2.4 Logical operators 13.2.5 Order of evaluation, all operators 13.4 System variables (_variables) 13.5 Accessing coefficients and standard errors
13.5.1 Single-equation models
13.6 Accessing results from Stata commands13.5.2 Multiple-equation models 13.5.3 Factor variables and time-series operators 13.7 Explicit subscripting
13.7.1 Generating lags and leads
13.8 Using the Expression Builder13.7.2 Subscripting within groups 13.9 Indicator values for levels of factor variables 13.10 Time-series operators
13.10.1 Generating lags, leads, and differences
13.11 Label values13.10.2 Time-series operators and factor variables 13.10.3 Operators within groups 13.10.4 Video example 13.12 Precision and problems therein 13.13 References
14.1 Overview
14.1.1 Definition of a matrix
14.2 Row and column names 14.1.2 matsize
14.2.1 The purpose of row and column names
14.3 Vectors and scalars14.2.2 Two-part names 14.2.3 Setting row and column names 14.2.4 Obtaining row and column names 14.4 Inputting matrices by hand 14.5 Accessing matrices created by Stata commands 14.6 Creating matrices by accumulating data 14.7 Matrix operators 14.8 Matrix functions 14.9 Subscripting 14.10 Using matrices in scalar expressions 14.11 Reference
15.1 Overview
15.1.1 Starting and closing logs
15.2 Placing comments in logs15.1.2 Appending to an existing log 15.1.3 Suspending and resuming logging 15.3 Logging only what you type 15.4 The log-button alternative 15.5 Printing logs 15.6 Creating multiple log files for simultaneous use
16.1 Description
16.1.1 Version
16.2 Calling other do-files16.1.2 Comments and blank lines in do-files 16.1.3 Long lines in do-files 16.1.4 Error handling in do-files 16.1.5 Logging the output of do-files 16.1.6 Preventing —more— conditions 16.3 Creating and running do-files
16.3.1 Creating and running do-files for Windows
16.4 Programming with do-files16.3.2 Creating and running do-files for Mac 16.3.3 Creating and running do-files for Unix
16.4.1 Argument passing
16.5 References16.4.2 Suppressing output
17.1 Description
17.2 What is an ado-file? 17.3 How can I tell if a command is built in or an ado-file? 17.4 How can I look at an ado-file? 17.5 Where does Stata look for ado-files?
17.5.1 Where are the official ado-directory?
17.6 How do I install an addition?17.5.2 Where is my personal ado-directory? 17.7 How do I add my own ado-files? 17.8 How do I install official updates? 17.9 How do I install updates to community-contributed additions? 17.10 Reference
18.1 Description
18.2 Relationship between a program and a do-file 18.3 Macros
18.3.1 Local macros
18.4 Program arguments18.3.2 Global macros 18.3.3 The difference between local and global macros 18.3.4 Macros and expressions 18.3.5 Double quotes 18.3.6 Extended macro functions 18.3.7 Macro increment and decrement functions 18.3.8 Macro expressions 18.3.9 Advanced local macro manipulation 18.3.10 Advanced global macro manipultation 18.3.11 Constructing Windows filenames by using macros 18.3.12 Accessing system values 18.3.13 Referring to characteristics
18.4.1 Named positional arguments
18.5 Scalars and matrices18.4.2 Incrementing through positional arguments 18.4.3 Using macro shift 18.4.4 Parsing standard Stata syntax 18.4.5 Parsing immediate commands 18.4.6 Parsing nonstandard syntax 18.6 Temporarily destroying the data in memory 18.7 Temporary objects
18.7.1 Temporary variables
18.8 Accessing results calculated by other programs18.7.2 Temporary scalars and matrices 18.7.3 Temporary files 18.9 Accessing results calculated by estimation commands 18.10 Saving results
18.10.1 Saving results in r()
18.11 Ado-files18.10.2 Saving results in e() 18.10.3 Saving results in s()
18.11.1 Version
18.12 Tools for interacting with programs outside Stata and with other languages18.11.2 Comments and long lines in ado-files 18.11.3 Debugging ado-files 18.11.4 Local subroutines 18.11.5 Development of a sample ado-command 18.11.6 Writing system help 18.11.7 Programming dialog boxes 18.13 A compendium of useful commands for programmers 18.14 References
19.1 Overview
19.1.1 Examples
19.2 The display command19.1.2 A list of the immediate commands 19.3 The power command
20.1 All estimation commands work the same way
20.2 Standard syntax 20.3 Replaying prior results 20.4 Cataloging estimation results 20.5 Saving estimation results 20.6 Specification search tools 20.7 Specifying the estimation subsample 20.8 Specifying the width of confidence intervals 20.9 Formatting the coefficient table 20.10 Obtaining the variance–covariance matrix 20.11 Obtaining predicted values
20.11.1 Using predict
20.12 Accessing estimated coefficients20.11.2 Making in-sample predictions 20.11.3 Making out-of-sample predictions 20.11.4 Obtaining standard errors, tests, and confidence intervals for predictions 20.13 Performing hypothesis tests on the coefficients
20.13.1 Linear tests
20.14 Obtaining linear combinations of coefficients20.13.2 Using test 20.13.3 Likelihood-ratio tests 20.13.4 Nonlinear Wald tests 20.15 Obtaining nonlinear combinations of coefficients 20.16 Obtaining marginal means, adjusted predictions, and predictive margins
20.16.1 Obtaining estimated marginal means
20.17 Obtaining conditional and average marginal effects20.16.2 Obtaining adjusted predictions 20.16.3 Obtaining predictive margins
20.17.1 Obtaining conditional marginal effects
20.18 Obtaining pairwise comparisons20.17.2 Obtaining average marginal effects 20.19 Obtaining contrasts, tests of interactions, and main effects 20.20 Graphing margins, marginal effects, and contrasts 20.21 Dynamic forecasts and simulations 20.22 Obtaining robust variance estimates
20.22.1 Interpreting standard errors
20.23 Obtaining scores20.22.2 Correlated errors: Cluster–robust standard errors 20.24 Weighted estimation
20.24.1 Frequency weights
20.25 A list of postestimation commands20.24.2 Analytic weights 20.24.3 Sampling weights 20.24.4 Importance weights 20.26 References Advice
21.1 Overview
21.2 Determining which method to use
21.2.1 Entering data interactively
21.3 If you run out of memory21.2.2 Copying and pasting data
21.2.2.1 Video example
21.2.3 If the dataset is in binary format21.2.4 If the data are simple 21.2.5 If the dataset is formatted and the formatting is significant 21.2.6 If there are no string variables 21.2.7 If all the string variables are enclosed in quotes 21.2.8 If the undelimited strings have no blanks 21.2.9 If you have EBCDIC data 21.2.10 If you make it to here 21.4 ODBC sources 21.5 Reference
22.1 References
23.1 Description
23.2 Categorical string variables 23.3 Mistaken string variables 23.4 Complex strings 23.5 Reference
24.1 Overview
24.2 Inputting dates and times 24.3 Displaying dates and times 24.4 Typing dates and times (datetime literals) 24.5 Extracting components of dates and times 24.6 Converting between date and time values 24.7 Business dates and calendars 24.8 References
25.1 Continuous, categorical, and indicator variables
25.1.1 Converting continuous variables to indicator variables
25.2 Estimation with factor variables 25.1.2 Converting continuous variables to categorical variables
25.2.1 Including factor variables
25.2.2 Specifying base levels 25.2.3 Setting base levels permanently 25.2.4 Testing significance of a main effect 25.2.5 Specifying indicator (dummy) variables as factor variables 25.2.6 Including interactions 25.2.7 Testing significance of interactions 25.2.8 Including factorial specifications 25.2.9 Including squared terms and polynomials 25.2.10 Including interactions with continuous variables 25.2.11 Parentheses binding 25.2.12 Including indicators for single levels 25.2.13 Including subgroups of levels 25.2.14 Combining factor variables and time-series operators 25.2.15 Treatment of empty cells
26.1 Introduction
26.2 Means, proportions, and related statistics 26.3 Continuous outcomes
26.3.1 ANOVA and ANCOVA
26.4 Binary outcomes26.3.2 Linear regression 26.3.3 Regression with heteroskedastic errors 26.3.4 Estimation with correlated errors 26.3.5 Regression with censored and truncated outcomes 26.3.6 Multiple-equation models 26.3.7 Stochastic frontier models 26.3.8 Nonlinear regression 26.3.9 Nonparametric regression
26.4.1 Logistic, probit, and complementary log-log regression
26.5 Fractional outcomes26.4.2 Conditional logistic regression 26.4.3 ROC analysis 26.6 Ordinal outcomes 26.7 Categorical outcomes 26.8 Count outcomes 26.9 Generalized linear models 26.10 Exact estimators 26.11 Models with endogenous covariates 26.12 Models with endogenous sample selection 26.13 Time-series models 26.14 Panel-data models
26.14.1 Continuous outcomes with panel data
26.15 Multilevel mixed-effects models26.14.2 Censored outcomes with panel data 26.14.3 Discrete outcomes with panel data 26.14.4 Generalized linear models with panel data 26.14.5 Survival models with panel data 26.14.6 Dynamic and autoregressive panel-data models 26.16 Survival analysis models 26.17 Spatial autoregressive models 26.18 Treatment-effects models 26.19 Pharmacokinetic data 26.20 Multivariate analysis 26.21 Generalized method of moments (GMM) 26.22 Structural equation modeling (SEM) 26.23 Latent class models 26.24 Finite mixture models(FMMs) 26.25 Item response theory (IRT) 26.26 Linearized dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) models 26.27 Survey data 26.28 Multiple imputation 26.29 Power and sample-size analysis 26.30 Bayesian analysis 26.31 References
27.1 41 commands
27.2 The by construct
28.1 Overview
28.2 Sharing datasets (and other files) 28.3 Official updates
28.3.1 Frequently asked questions about updating
28.4 Downloading and managing additions by users
28.4.1 Downloading files
28.5 Making your own download site 28.4.2 Managing files 28.4.3 Finding files to download 28.4.4 Updating additions by users 28.4.5 Video example |